<a href="http://youngpetro.org/2013/03/06/how-is-it-possible-to-produce-oil-from-sand/"><b>How is it possible to produce oil from sand?</b></a> <a href="http://youngpetro.org/2011/10/09/people-engineers-and-spe-members/"><b>People, Engineers and SPE Members</b></a> <a href="http://youngpetro.org/2012/12/19/if-i-were-a-prime-minister/"><b>If I Were a Prime Minister…</b></a> <a href="http://youngpetro.org/2012/12/26/polish-shales-delayed/"><b>Polish shales delayed?</b></a> <a href="http://youngpetro.org/2013/01/11/russia-continues-the-policy-of-states-companies-monopoly/"><b>Russia continues the policy of state companies’ monopoly</b></a>
 

SEG Student Field Camp Poland 2016 – Searching for hidden treasures – Student’s Geophysical Quest

SEG Student Field Camp Poland 2016 – Searching for hidden treasures – Student’s Geophysical Quest

After a close collaboration between members of two SEG Student Chapters – SEG Bucharest Student Chapter and SEG Cracow Student Chapter – the idea of the Joint Field Camp was born and then successfully realised in September. It incorporated students from two different countries (Romania and Poland) and also international students from all around the world.

A group of 30 students was actively involved in geophysical field training and supervised by experienced researchers from AGH University as well as the professionals from the Polish Geological Institute – National Research Institute. Scientists taught international group of students how to use geophysical methods to identify underground structures. A training ground for research was sixteenth-century fortress Srebrna Góra in Lower Silesia, Poland.

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The first three days students spent on field measurements nearby the great, sixteenth-century fortress and at the fourteenth-century collegiate church in Kłodzko, looking for underground structures. Participants had the opportunity to learn how to use the equipment and how to make professional analysis of geophysical data. They also learned about satellite geodetic coordinates. Scientists from Polish Geological Institute demonstrated electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and conductivity measurements (EM) in application of shallow geology surveys.

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In the gothic church in Klodzko dr Jerzy Ziętek from AGH led the measurements using ground penetrating radar (GPR). The aim of the survey was to investigate unknown underground structures of the building, including detection of basement walls and crypts. You can read more about this part of the project at: www.radiowroclaw.pl

The event was ended with a geological trip to The Stołowe Mountains National Park, located in the central part of Sudety Mountains in Kłodzko land. Participants had a chance to learn about the geology of the area – a wide region of old mountains, dating back to cretaceous.

Underground Gas Storage

Underground Gas Storage

   Natural gas is a seasonal fuel – demand for it is usually higher during the winter. The process of exploitation, production, and transportation of natural gas takes time, and it is not always needed right away. The solution for this issues is underground gas storage. It is also used for:

– balancing the flow in pipeline systems,

– insuring against any unforeseen accidents,

– market speculation – producers and marketers use gas storage as a speculative tool, storing gas when they believe that prices will increase in the future and then selling it when it does reach those levels,

– maintaining contractual balance – shippers use stored gas to maintain the volume they deliver to the pipeline system and the volume they withdraw,

and other secondary purposes.

   Natural gas is most commonly held in inventory underground under pressure in three types of facilities. These underground facilities are depleted reservoirs in oil or natural gas fields, aquifers, and salt cavern formations. Natural gas is also stored in liquid or gaseous form in above–ground tanks.  This is the most expensive of all storage options, but this solution is applicable when it is impossible to build other storage facilities near large consumers. Two important characteristics of an underground storage reservoir are its capacity to hold natural gas for future use and the rate at which gas inventory can be withdrawn – called its deliverability rate.

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Depleted gas reservoir

They are the reservoir formations of natural gas fields that have produced all their economically recoverable gas. The depleted reservoir formation is readily capable of holding injected natural gas. Using such a facility is economically attractive because it allows the re-use, with suitable modification, of the extraction and distribution infrastructure remaining from the productive life of the gas field which reduces the start-up costs. Depleted reservoirs are also attractive because their geological and physical characteristics have already been studied by geologists and petroleum engineers and are usually well known. Consequently, they are the cheapest and easiest to develop, operate, and maintain of the three types of underground storage.

Aquifer reservoir

An aquifer is suitable for gas storage if the water-bearing sedimentary rock formation is overlaid with an impermeable cap rock. Although the geology of aquifers is similar to depleted production fields, their use for natural gas storage usually requires more base (cushion) gas and allows less flexibility in injecting and withdrawing. These types of storage facilities are usually used only in areas where there are no nearby depleted reservoirs. They are the least desirable and most expensive type of natural gas storage facility.

Salt formation

Underground salt formations are well suited to natural gas storage. Once formed, they allow little injected natural gas to escape from the formation unless specifically extracted. The walls of a salt cavern also have the structural strength of steel, which makes it very resilient against reservoir degradation over the life of the storage facility. Salt caverns provide very high withdrawal and injection rates relative to their working gas capacity.

How it works

Pumping gas is about injecting it in an artificial gas field using the parameters, specified by the process design. Gas is routed from a trunk gas pipeline to a site for removing solids, then to a gas metering station, and then to a compressor shop, where it is compressed and supplied to gas distribution stations (GDS) via headers. At a GDS, the general gas flow is divided in process lines, to which well loops are connected. Hook-up of process lines allows to measure productivity, temperature, and pressure of gas during an injection for each well.

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Back into the pipe

Extraction of gas from an underground storage facility is almost the same technological process as extraction from gas fields, but there is an essential difference: all active (commercial) gas is extracted within the period from 60 to 180 days. Flowing through the loops, it is received at gas-collecting stations, where it is gathered in a gas-collecting header. From there, gas is supplied to a separation site for the separation of produced water and solids, and then it is routed to a cleaning and drying site. Cleaned and dried gas is routed to the trunk gas pipelines.

gazprominfo.com/articles/gas-storage/

naturalgas.org/naturalgas/storage/

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_gas_storage

eia.gov/naturalgas/storage/basics/

Oil Prices are above 50$ a barrel after OPEC deal

Oil Prices are above 50$ a barrel after OPEC deal

Agreement to cut production between OPEC members was a suprise in oil sector. It caused price rise of black gold, but will it last for long?
Enthusiasm for the proposed deal finally cooled down and after a while and turned into wary skepticism. Lack of faith in this deal is quiet understandable. Deal is full of exemptions and conditional allowances. Ground of agreement rests on good will of Saudi Arabia. OPEC leader wants to pull the other members behind it in a fight to rescue prices from further stagnation. The cut is also evidence of the changing conditions within Saudi Arabia itself, which after a two-year strategy of maximized production is at a cross-roads, financial stress and general instability.

The goal of the cut is to bring the OPEC production level from 33.24 mln bpd (level at the time of the meeting) to a level between 32.5/33 mln bpd. This agreement is an important sign of changing priorities within Saudi government. There are some politicians in UAE that hope to see their country in other field than oil sector and begin more diversified economy.

The Saudi commitment to cut production is shared by only ten other members of the organization: there are several important exceptions that will, in effect, render the cuts largely symbolic, at least as far as the supply-demand balance is concerned.

Nigeria has been allowed to continue pumping, as it deals with violence in the Niger River Delta. Libya is also exempt, as its oil industry slowly finds its feet amidst civil war. Questions linger over how Iraq, which has enjoyed freedom to pump what it wants since 1991, will be brought back into an OPEC system of production management. Iraq’s energy minister has acted defiantly, arguing that OPEC figures under-estimate Iraq’s current production levels. This indicates that Iraq, in the middle of its on-going struggle with ISIS, will fight tooth and nail for its existing market share, as well as the freedom to continue pumping what it wants. Russia also will not participate in any cuts and there is huge chance that production cut but OPEC members will be replaced by non-OPEC countries.

To sum up these cuts are about moving the market and sending a message of unity and puropse. Even slight cut of 240,000 barrels per day will show us that OPEC is prepared to influence prices. They lead us to political strategy of Saudi Arabia and changing balance of strength in structures of OPEC. After the first rise in Oil price let’s wait for the further effects of this deal.

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GSSPE Student Technical Conference 2016

GSSPE Student Technical Conference 2016

   We are happy to announce the main sponsors of the event: Wintershall and DEA! Both companies will support the conference with company tables and representatives in the networking area!

You can still attend the main annual conference of the German Section SPE on Petroleum & Drilling Engineering, Geothermics and Hydrocarbon-related Geosciences!
At the STC you can meet numerous representatives of the german petroleum industry and follow lectures and poster sessions of students, learn from young professionals and key-note speakers and use this unique opportunity to grow your professional network!

• Location: German Oil Museum, Wietze, Germany
• Date: 03-04 November 2016
• Participants: about 100 international students and German petroleum industry representatives

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Please find all relevant info at: connect.spe.org
Please note that the abstract submission deadline (08th July) for student-speakers has already expired.