<a href="http://youngpetro.org/2013/03/06/how-is-it-possible-to-produce-oil-from-sand/"><b>How is it possible to produce oil from sand?</b></a> <a href="http://youngpetro.org/2011/10/09/people-engineers-and-spe-members/"><b>People, Engineers and SPE Members</b></a> <a href="http://youngpetro.org/2012/12/19/if-i-were-a-prime-minister/"><b>If I Were a Prime Minister…</b></a> <a href="http://youngpetro.org/2012/12/26/polish-shales-delayed/"><b>Polish shales delayed?</b></a> <a href="http://youngpetro.org/2013/01/11/russia-continues-the-policy-of-states-companies-monopoly/"><b>Russia continues the policy of state companies’ monopoly</b></a>
 

Student Technical Conference 2016 Call for Abstracts

Student Technical Conference 2016 Call for Abstracts

The Student Technical Conference 2016 will be held on 3rd and 4th of November, once more in the oil museum in one of the birthplaces of global oil drilling in Wietze near Celle. Format will be similar as in previous years, with lectures, poster presentations, keynote, YP panel, and company booths.

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STC 2016 Call-for-Abstracts-ver3_A4 (2)

Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

What will happen if world’s oil and gas reserves ends? Either world can survive without fuel or not because there were not enough technologies which could extract all of the oil buried underground. These were the questions which were asked 50 years ago, but with the advancement of Petroleum Industry new techniques are introduced and used around the world frequently. Enhanced oil recovery is one of the most and pioneering field of petroleum industry. It is defined as “Use of different techniques and methods to increase oil and gas production”. We all know that the hydrocarbons produced from primary recovery are only 10 – 20 % of a total reservoir, which is due to natural energy of the reservoir, while this percentage increases up to 40 % when secondary recovery is used, which includes water flooding and gas flooding in reservoir. There is a third term which is called tertiary recovery. According to the Department of Energy U.S.A, the amount of oil produced worldwide is only one third of the total oil available. With the decline in oil discoveries during the last decades it is believed that EOR technologies will play a key role to meet the energy demand in coming years. So by using tertiary recovery we will be able to produce more oil as the demand increase while we have a shortage in the supply. To get last drop of hydrocarbon from a reservoir, tertiary recovery is used. There are many techniques that are used in tertiary recovery and are collectively labelled as “Enhanced Oil Recovery”. Using Enhanced Oil Recovery the production can be increased up to 60%. Enhanced oil recovery is most demanding technique now a days because it is used to recover the Residual oil which cannot be recovered by primary as well as secondary recovery. Enhanced Oil Recovery includes:
1. Thermal Injection
2. Chemical Injection
3. Gas Injection

One thing should be kept in mind that water injection is not included in Enhanced Oil Recovery, it is used in secondary recovery. These three techniques are discussed as below:
1.Thermal Injection
In this technique, steam is injected in well to lower the viscosity. This steam increases the movement of hydrocarbons towards the reservoir. Steam flooding or fire flooding may be used. In steam flooding the steam condenses to hot water, in the steam zone the oil evaporates and in the hot water zone the oil expands. As a result, the oil expands the viscosity drops and the permeability increases. In fire flooding the gases with the oxygen is pumped down and it generate fire. This fire eventually decreases viscosity of oil and hence production is carried out.
2. Chemical Injection
The chemical injection refers to those processes in which different chemicals are added to the fluids in order to stimulate the mobility between both the displacing and displaced fluid. These are water based EOR methods. Chemical flooding processes can be divided into three main categories:
a. Polymer flooding
b. Surfactant flooding

The most common polymer used are:

  • Partially Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamide (HPAM) or ionic
  • Sodium polyacrylate (SPA)
  • Polystyrene sulfonate
  • Carboxy methyl cellulose
  • Xanthan Gum (corn sugar gum)
  • Guar Gum or detergent -like surfactants are used to help lower the surface tension that often prevents oil
    droplets from moving through a reservoir. The surfactants used are:
  • Carboxylates such as Potassium oleate, Sodium laurate, Potassium stearate, Potassium
    caprolate
  • Alkali metal Alkylbenzene sulfonates such as Sodium nonylbenzene sulfonate and Potassium dodecylbenzene sulfonate
  • Salts of resin acids such as Abietic acid and Dihydroabietic acid.

3. Gas Injection
The concept of injecting gases into reservoirs to improve oil recovery is an old theory. The simple working mechanism is that gases are injected in the productive zone which decrease the viscosity of oil and increase the flow. The gases used are:

  • Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
  • Nitrogen (N2)
  • Air Water Alternating Gas (WAG) injection is an EOR process that was developed to mitigate the technical and economic disadvantages of gas injection. It is the most widely applied and most successful traditional EOR process.
    It involves the injection of slugs of water alternately with gas although sometimes the two fluids are injected simultaneously.

Which EOR is Best:

When we talk about that which EOR is technique is the best one, then CO2 injection gets the number one keeping in view of previous production record of all methods used in EOR. Carbon dioxide injection accounts for nearly 60 percent of EOR production in the United States. Thermal injection accounts for 40 percent of EOR production in the United States. Chemical injection accounts for about one percent of EOR production in the United States. When we talk about the cost effectiveness of techniques mentioned above, then CO2 injection is the best method because CO2 is:

  • Naturally occurring gas
  • Can be used as a bi-product from some industry

On the other hand, if we use Thermal Injection then we have to install a separate plant for the steam injection while using Chemical Flooding we have to prepare or buy costly chemical which ultimately increase the cost of recovery which is not an appreciable process. So leeping in view of all these aspects, we have a conclusion that CO2 injection is the best EOR Technique.

References:
http://energy.gov/fe/science-innovation/oil-gas-research/enhanced-oil-recovery
http://www.rigzone.com/training/insight.asp?insight_id=313&c_id=4
http://www.ijastnet.com/journals/Vol_1_No_5_September_2011/18.pdf

Militians from Niger Delta strike again

Militians from Niger Delta strike again

Niger Delta Avengers, are the group of local militians in the region o Niger Delta. They had claimed the responsibility for latest attacks in the oil and gas area. On June 3rd, crude oil pipelines were attacked and once more, Avengers are admitting they took part in this assault.

A group of militians sneaked through marshland to bomb two pipelines. One owned by Royal Dutch Shell and the second held by Italian ENI. Both firms confirmed the attack, but ENI said it didn’t contribute to any supply disruption. Unfortunately Shell confirmed spill from its pipeline.

Strikes by the Avengers has considerably cut the amount of oil in global markets. What are they trying to achieve by assaults like this? These people want to drag attention to local situation in Niger Delta. They seem to be more interested in undermining the administration of President Muhammadu Buhari. Dolapo Oni, oil and gas analyst or Togo-based Ecobank Transnational Inc. says:
“These guys are not stealing crude. They just bomb the pipelines and they run away. “

These attacks have been influencing Nigeria’s oil infrastructure for months. The production dropped from 2.2 milion barrels a day to 1.4 million barrels a day. That’s he worst result in last 20 years. After the attack on Chevron infrastructure they announced another attacks, but still local oil companies weren’t secured enough to stop another assault. Continued violence and lack of safety may cause evacuation of staff that would cripple already low production of oil.

Nigeria’s oil market is facing rough times. Companies are losing millions of dollars every day and at the moment the situation is not looking good. At any moment we might hear about another attack.

ASEC 2016

ASEC 2016

   The Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering, together with the University of Zagreb SPE Student Chapter was host to The 3rd Annual Student Energy Conference, held from March 9th to 12th, 2016. The extensive Conference program was divided into three days of lectures and trainings held by students and distinguished guests from Croatia and several other countries. The fourth day of the program was reserved for establishing connections and building new friendships among students through team building activities.

   On the day of the opening ceremony, the introductory speech was given by the President of SPE Student Chapter Croatia, Mr. Mario Jukic. Also, a warm welcome to all participants was wished by the former Chapter’s President, Mr. Filip Krunic, the Faculty’s dean, Mr. Zoran Nakic and the President of SPE Croatian Section, Mr. Vladislav Brkic. The opening Ceremony was embelished by the SPE Student Chapter’s Men Choir which performed several traditional Croatian ballads. The choir’s performance was met by great enthusiasm and applause from the audience.

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The opening ceremony was followed by, according to students’ opinion, the most interesting part of Conference program, which was panel discussion on the topic “Exploration activities in Adriatic Sea, Yes or No?”. The discussion was encouraged by topics ranging from geophysical explorations, drilling activities, field development, production optimization issues, transportation and gathering and HSE topics to geopolitical analysis on current situation in oil and gas industry. Along with these topics, the Conference welcomed presenters with topics on Geothermal Energy Recovery as an alternative and ecologically provable energy source, CO2 underground storage developments, problems which may be encountered in oil transportation pipeline systems, the Croatian LNG project stages and much more. What is more, the workshop section took place in the Faculty’s Computer Lab using the world known ECLIPSE and PROSPER software packages, where students had an opportunity to run through typical field examples.

 More than 360 participants attended the Conference, with over 50 foreign participants (Padjadjaran University from Indonesia, Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas from Russia, National Mineral Resources University from Russia, AGH University of Science and Technology from Poland, University of Miskolc from Hungary, Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University Of Oil and Gas from Ukraine, Mining University of Leoben from Austria and Technical University of Berlin from Germany). Next to excellent student presentations, forty distinguished lecturers from the industry, two Zagreb Faculties and foreign Universities also held their presentations, shared stories from their extensive experience and encouraged students not to give up on their studies in this harsh period for the industry.

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 The Conference was held under the high patronage of the President of the Republic of Croatia, Mrs. Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovic and Mayor of Zagreb, Mr. Milan Bandic. The organization of the Conference was financially supported by the Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering, SPE Croatian Section, INA d.d., Croatian Hydrocarbon Energy, PSP Okoli d.o.o., PPD d.o.o.. Mreza TV and YoungPetro were Media patrons of the Conference.

The fourth edition of this successful Conference will be held in March 2017 in Croatia. More information will be available on our web page: http://spes.rgn.hr/ and Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/SPEZG. See you all in Croatia in a while!

Irena Mijatovic, Ivan Bosnjak
SPE.ZG

BP delivered a massive jobs boost.

BP delivered a massive jobs boost.

Today BP has announced a commitment to stay at the North Sea for the next 40 years.  The installation of the modules for its Clair Ridge platform and the imminent arrival of the storage vessel Glen Lyon has been hailed as a “once in lifetime” double win for the region. Thanks to that investment they will be able to hire more than 500 people and exploit over one billion barrels of oil.

Since O&G sector is now going through hard time according to plummeting oil prices and driven down by reducing the employment, such information is a good sign that the industy will recover. More than 65,000 jobs have gone with more redundancies in the pipeline across the sector due to numerous projects being put on hold. Operators have slashed costs as profit margins have dropped significantly over the past two years.

In reference to Mr. Ian Wood’s opinion industry will recover in 5 years. The new jobs are linked to the hook-up and commissioning of the two projects with the work expected to last 18 months.

Source: http://www.oilandgaspeople.com