<a href="http://youngpetro.org/2013/03/06/how-is-it-possible-to-produce-oil-from-sand/"><b>How is it possible to produce oil from sand?</b></a> <a href="http://youngpetro.org/2011/10/09/people-engineers-and-spe-members/"><b>People, Engineers and SPE Members</b></a> <a href="http://youngpetro.org/2012/12/19/if-i-were-a-prime-minister/"><b>If I Were a Prime Minister…</b></a> <a href="http://youngpetro.org/2012/12/26/polish-shales-delayed/"><b>Polish shales delayed?</b></a> <a href="http://youngpetro.org/2013/01/11/russia-continues-the-policy-of-states-companies-monopoly/"><b>Russia continues the policy of state companies’ monopoly</b></a>
 

International Fuel Congress

International Fuel Congress

When: 24th – 26th February 2014

Where: Ivano- Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas, Ivano- Frankivsk, Ukraine

Registration deadline: 25th January 2014

E-mail: spe-if@i.ua

Website: www.spe-if.pp.ua

Shale gas out of stricter law for environmental studies, Chevron and PGNiG joined forces

Shale gas out of stricter law for environmental studies, Chevron and PGNiG joined forces

Once the chief economist of the International Energy Agency (IEA), Faith Birol said: “The Polish unconventional gas has a potential to change the situation of Poland and it also has a potential to change the whole EU gas market for decades”.

 

There is no doubt that unconventional gas provides the opportunity to respond to the challenge of reducing CO2 emissions, strengthening economic competitiveness and gaining energy security in the gas supply sector. Despite these pros, public opposition is strong on environmental grounds and demands stricter law on environmental studies.

According to Reuters: “EU governments endorsed an outline deal on new rules to assess the impact on the environment of projects such as oil and gas exploration, after removing references to shale gas that had blocked agreement. (…) EU ambassadors approved a revised draft law, updating legislation first agreed more than two decades ago and for the first time including an assessment of a new project’s impact on climate change.”

This is an important information for Chevron and PGNiG, which joined forces on shale gas exploration projects in Poland.

Two companies signed a Memorandum of Understanding on December 12th, 2013. The collaboration would reduce the costs and increase the pace of exploration works, also potentially provide proper technical development. Details of partnership, the joint project between Chevron, experienced in challenging gas production and exploration and Polish company, are expected to be signed later in 2014.

If the cooperation is successful, they might set up a joint company in which both will hold a 50 percent stakes. The venture would bring two concessions from PGNiG (Tomaszów Lubelski, Wiszniów-Tarnoszyn) and two from Chevron (Zwierzyniec, Grabowiec).

concession

Fig. 1. Concessions coming under agreement (source: rp.pl).

 

Should be reminded that exploring for natural gas from shale formations in southeast Poland is Chevron’s first activity in Europe.

American company operates four concessions, since 2009 and holds 100% each of them (together nearly 4,433 sq km). They include:

  • Frampol concession – 1,200 sq km
  • Grabowiec concession – 1,200 sq km
  • Kraśnik concession – 1,200 sq km
  • Zwierzyniec concession – 800 sq km.

 Chevron Poland_550x300

Fig. 2. Chevron’s investment in Poland (source: chevron.pl).

Sources: www.reuters.com, www.chevron.com, www.pgnig.pl

Photos from: www.bls.gov, www.theguardian.com

The environmental truth about fracking

The environmental truth about fracking

Fracking – this hellish word equally electrifies people in America and Europe. What’s interesting is the fact that, when we name this process ‘hydraulic fracturing’, it has more positive overtones in the society, than when we use ‘fracking’. Are some people scared of the whole process or just the pejorative name? There are no reasonable proofs for the negative impact on the groundwater or causing local earthquakes by hydraulic fracturing process. The truth is far different…

Water

I decided to start with this matter first, because it causes the biggest buzz. The main environmental controversy over fracking is that this technique is very water- intensive. According to American data, about 3 million gallons (11 000 m3) is needed to frack one horizontal well. Too much? You’re very mistaken. This is just 0.034% of total withdrawn water each day in New York State. Fracking fluid, besides water (90%), contains sand (9.5%) and 0.5% of chemical additives, which are ingredients of cosmetics, household cleaners and food. Now let’s compare the use of water to produce 1 million British Thermal Units of energy:

  • natural gas: 3 gallons
  • nuclear power: 11 gallons
  • coal: 23 gallons
  • corn ethanol: 15 800 gallons
  • soy biodiesel: 44 500 gallons

Natural gas knocked out coal. In Texas, it generated 41% of energy in 2012. Two years earlier, coal was leading with 40%. This change makes the state less vulnerable to drought, according to study from the University of Texas.

Air

Positive influence on the air condition is an indirect effect of fracking. Lower cost of natural gas, caused by massive boost in shale gas extraction, turned the American industry to start moving from coal towards natural gas, which is the cleanest fossil fuel. Since 2002, carbon dioxide output has grown 32% globally. In 2012, the US CO2 emission was lower by 8% than in 2002! Burning the natural gas also significantly reduces emissions of PM2.5 (microscopic dust particles, which penetrate the lungs where they are absorbed by the blood), sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxides and mercury.

Protecting habitat

Now I’ll show you why natural gas, thanks to fracking and horizontal drilling, overgreens ‘green’ energy. According to a SAIC/RW Beck research, such areas are necessary to generate a year’s supply of electricity for 1 000 households:

  • 0.4 acres – natural gas
  • 0.7 acres – nuclear power
  • 0.75 acres – coal
  • 6 acres – wind power
  • 8.4 acres – solar cells

The data shows that ‘green’ sources of energy are more environmental offensive. Since 2007, more than five million trees have been sawed thanks to wind farm development in Scotland. Fewer than 1.6 million was planted to replace them. This is the result of the Scottish plan to produce 100% of their energy from renewables by 2020.

These arguments show that American natural gas boom, thanks to revolutionary technique of fracking and horizontal drilling really changes positively not only the energy market and the American economy, but also the environment. If you really care about it, you should adore fracking!

Sources: telegraph.co.uk, energyfromshale.org, cityam.com,  nypost.com, fuelfix.com

Photos: sanleonenergy.com,  blogplos.com