<a href="http://youngpetro.org/2013/03/06/how-is-it-possible-to-produce-oil-from-sand/"><b>How is it possible to produce oil from sand?</b></a> <a href="http://youngpetro.org/2011/10/09/people-engineers-and-spe-members/"><b>People, Engineers and SPE Members</b></a> <a href="http://youngpetro.org/2012/12/19/if-i-were-a-prime-minister/"><b>If I Were a Prime Minister…</b></a> <a href="http://youngpetro.org/2012/12/26/polish-shales-delayed/"><b>Polish shales delayed?</b></a> <a href="http://youngpetro.org/2013/01/11/russia-continues-the-policy-of-states-companies-monopoly/"><b>Russia continues the policy of state companies’ monopoly</b></a>
 

Technological Advancement in Oil Industry

29 October, 2013 News 5 comments
Technological Advancement in Oil Industry

Past technological advances have affected energy supply, demand, and production costs. Previously in oilfield, big data was gathered from many points throughout exploration, discovery, and processing. The capture and analysis of big data needed to drive decisions was challenging. Some of the challenges included data utilization, intelligent modeling, precise computation, and exploration speed and focus. However, in today’s world, handling of such data has become much easier. The sources of technology intended for the oil and gas markets have changed over time. In the early 1980s, major oil and gas companies began to decrease their research and development spending, and then services companies stepped forward to fill the void by increasing their R&D expenses.  The petroleum industry is fueling a secure future through advanced technology research and development.

Total R&D expenditures are divided as follows according to INTEK:

R&D Expenditures

Petroleum science has evolved from undeveloped geology to supercomputer- based calculations and 3D views of the subsurface. It has taken the drilling process from guessing game to the defined targeting of fields. The 21st century Oil & Gas Industry is charged by innovation and technology. It has dramatically altered the manner in which oil and gas reserves are identified, developed, and produced. Advancements in technology have also improved environmental protection and conservation of natural resources.

Technological advances affect all sectors of the energy market and all other regions in the world. The competitive petroleum industry promotes the technology transfer worldwide.  Petroleum refining has grown increasingly complex in the last two decades, due to lower-quality crude oil and environmental regulations that require cleaner manufacturing processes and higher-performance products.

Key drivers that are impacting the industry’s competitive position are following:

  • Safety and the environment
  • Exploiting changing markets and demand
  • Competitive forces
  • Increasing the efficiency of energy use and energy products.

In many cases, technology research and development (R&D) are keys to meeting these challenges and maintaining the health and profitability of the industry.

Technological Progress

Many of the technology improvements involve the use of existing technologies in more efficient ways. Major conception & evolution of technological developments are on the horizon of:

  • Fundamental Research
  • Oil and natural gas supply
  • Transportation
  • Industrial Markets

Form of Technology Progress

1-  New Material
2-  New Equipment
3-  New Knowledge
4-  New Management Techniques

Technological Progress is Difficult to Identify

1- Most technological progress is incremental. Small incremental improvements result in large advances over time.
2-Technological progress is often intangible, for example, new knowledge & new management techniques.
3- Technological progress often originates outside the petroleum industry, for examples, improvements in computer equipment and software. 

The Petroleum Industry has identified research priorities in the following areas:

Research Priorities

Photos: Mehwish & Google Images

References

  • INTEK: “Trends in Oil and Gas Industry R&D Expenditures (2004),” presentation prepared for Office of
  • Oil and Natural Gas, United States Department of Energy, Arlington, VA (2004).
  • Working Document of the NPC Global Oil & Gas Study
  • Petroleum Industry of the Future
  • Advancement on Drilling Technology in Petroleum Industry
  • The Impact of Petroleum Technology Advances on Long-Term Energy Markets

New in CAREER: YoungPetro in collaboration with Fair Recruitment

New in CAREER: YoungPetro in collaboration with Fair Recruitment

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Russia to invest $63bn for Arctic development

23 October, 2013 News No comments
Russia to invest $63bn for Arctic development

Russia plans to spend $63 billion by 2020 on its Arctic development program, according to a top government official.

The draft version of the program could be submitted to the Cabinet by November 1, said Regional Development Minister Igor Slyunyayev. The comment was made in Moscow at the general assembly of the Northern Forum, which supports sustainable development in areas economically dependent on natural resources.

Major Russian companies are expected to finance more than half the program’s cost, while one-third of funding will likely come out of the federal budget.

Below the ice and cold waters of the Arctic Ocean are hidden vast natural reserves, including approximately 20% of oil reserves worldwide and around 30% of the planet’s natural gas. There are also believed to be deposits of platinum, gold and tin – just for starters.

The untapped natural resources have seen conflicting claims from Canada, Denmark, Norway, Russia and the US in recent years, as exact borders between the sovereign zones which surround the Arctic are far from defined. The situation has led to the rise of national Arctic development and has prompted increased military presence in the area – especially on behalf of Canada and Russia. Most recently, it has been discovered that the Canadian military has been secretly test-driving a $620,000 stealth snowmobile designed for clandestine operations in the Arctic, The Canadian Press reported.

Arctic climate change is progressing twice as fast as in the rest of the world. As the Arctic ice cap decreases year by year, the vast natural resources and sea routes become more accessible.

There are still a lot of technical and environmental challanges to be solved in the Arctic, but with so many investments being made there is no doubt we will see a lot more activities in the Arctic within the next decade(s).

 

Source: RT

Photo: greenpeace.org.au

In 2014 shale gas also in South Africa

In 2014 shale gas also in South Africa

There are some plans to issue licenses permitting exploration of shale-gas reserves in South Africa. Reserves, which are located in the semi-arid Karoo region, are scheduled to exploit in the first quarter of 2014. The country published proposed regulations for hydraulic fracturing on Oct. 15, a year after lifting a ban on the drilling process known as fracking, as it seeks to tap as much as 485 trillion cubic feet of resources in the semi-arid Karoo region. The draft rules require drillers to meet American Petroleum Institute standards governing the type of equipment used and the disclosure of chemicals. The move to pursue exploration follows a shale boom in the U.S., while diverging from policy in France, the Netherlands and Bulgaria where fracking has been restricted or banned in response to public protests.
Royal Dutch Shell and other explorers have applied for permits to explore the Karoo. South Africa, which imports 70 percent of its crude-oil needs, also wants to reduce its heavy dependence on coal usage, which emits greenhouse gases linked to climate change.

Close to 90 percent of the country’s power supply comes from coal-fueled plants. Exploration of shale gas may generate 1 trillion rand ($100 billion) of sales within three decades, helping bring it closer to supplying its own energy demand.

The proposed plans for exploration have been published in South Africa’s government gazette and the public has 30 days in which to comment on them.

Read more:Fuel Fix Rigzone

Photos: wikimedia.org; Affarinternazionali.it

How to Get Entry Into Directional Drilling Profession?

How to Get Entry Into Directional Drilling Profession?

 

One of the biggest breakthroughs in how we get the fuel for our vehicles and homes is the science of directional drilling of oil and gas wells. The job of a directional driller is one of the most highly compensated positions in the petroleum exploration industry. Directional drilling has helped discover vast new deposits of oil and natural gas throughout the globe. The technology is for the first time in years reversing the decline in domestic oil production. For this reason, the number of jobs in directional drilling of oil wells is increasing.

Directional drillers earn good money, some of the best in the oilfield, for being in charge of drilling an oil well sideways or horizontally. It can be a demanding high pressure job. To be a directional driller one must be very mechanically inclined, have a good amount oilfield experience, be good at mathematics and be willing to travel and spend much as fifty weeks a year away from home when starting out.

How?

The people who most often become highly paid directional drillers have usually arrived at the position by one of two paths. Some have worked their way up the ladder from roughneck and regular oil rig driller and then applied for the job of directional driller with a service company, such as Sperry Sun, that specializes in that type of work. To be hired they must have years of experience drilling oil wells in different types of rock formations, working on different types of rigs, etc., as well as possess excellent math and problem solving skills.
Others who become directional drillers may have spent several years working in the field of MWD-LWD (Measure and Logging While Drilling), which is the electronic technology used to guide directional drillers as they drill oil and gas wells horizontally through rock stratas. Those working in LWD and MWD may have an engineering degree from a university or technical school degree.

Required Educational Background

There are several ways to enter the vast oil and gas field. If you browse through the profiles of different oil field workers, you’ll observe that some are just high school pass outs while some are masters’ degree holder too. There are just few companies which recruit freshers directly as a directional drilling personnel and maximum of those are PSU’s. Most of the reputed companies hire fresh graduates as a MWD operator and after few years (may be about 4 to 5 years) they are provided DD training and shifted to core directional drilling department as a DD.

If you are fresh Engineering Graduate with Electronics, IT, Computer, Petroleum as major, you can directly enter the MWD department and later get promoted to Directional drilling section.

If you are fresh graduate with Petroleum or Mechanical major, you can enter via drilling and then switching to MWD since all MWD service providers do not recruit mechanical engineers for MWD field operation.

Education background preferred for MWD operator position:
Bachelors in Electronics / Electronics & Communication
Bachelors in Computer / IT
Bachelors in Petroleum

If you want to get a job as a directional driller, make sure you take courses in math and science in high school and college. Trigonometry is an essential part of the job and though many of the calculations used to determine how to build or maintain angle in the well can be done on programmable scientific calculators, understanding the “why” behind the math is essential to the job. In addition, most companies require that directional drillers attend a multi – day class and pass a final exam before being promoted any further than trainee.

Job Environment

Your work will either be on a land rig or on an offshore rig. There is no such thing as a typical “work day” for a directional driller. One of the most critical times on the job is when the directional driller is diverting the well from vertical to horizontal. A bad calculation on error in judgment when deciding when and how to build angle can mean the difference between having to abandon days of work, cement the newly drilled section of the well, etc. During these times both the day and night directional drillers may be up for many hours without sleep. During the training phase of the job a trainee may work part of the night with one driller and part of the day with the other full time D.D. Since well trained “hands” are in high demand, they may go straight from one job to the other, with days in between going home. To say that the job can be stressful is an understatement.

Salaries

Salaries for directional drillers with several years of experience may be well over $200,000 a year but in return they are required to go to jobs anywhere, at anytime the company orders them to do so.

Sources:

• CAREER IN DIRECTIONAL DRILLING, Directional Drilling Technology Blog.

• How to Get A Job As A Directional Driller In The Oilfield, eHow Contributor

Maersk Viking- first ultra deepwater drillship in Maersk’s fleet

12 October, 2013 News 1 comment
Maersk Viking- first ultra deepwater drillship in Maersk’s fleet

On Thursday morning at the Samsung Heavy Industries shipyard in Geoje-Si in South Korea, Mrs Nathalie Newman, wife of Mr Harry Newman Jr, ExxonMobil Global Drilling Manager, named the first Maersk Drilling’s ultra deepwater drillship – Maersk Viking.

Maersk Drilling ordered four drillships in Samsung Heavy Industries. The contract is of the total cost of $ 2.6 billion and will be accomplished in late 2013 and 2014. All the new four ships are equipped with dual derrick and large subsea and storage area. The ships, owing to their advanced positioning control system, automatically maintain a permanent position in a severe weather with waves up to 11 meters and wind up to 26 meters a second.

Maersk Viking, after delivery and mobilization to the Gulf of Mexico, will be drilling for a three – year period for ExxonMobil. The estimate contract value is $ 610 million (excluding cost escalation and performance bonus). Maersk Drilling has been working in the American Gulf of Mexico since 2009. Now, with Maersk Viking, the company is becoming one of the most significant drilling contractors in this part of the World.

The naming of Maersk Viking is an important milestone in our further expansion in the ultra deepwater market. With the contract for Maersk Viking we look forward to continuing our relationship with ExxonMobil, and establishing ourselves as a significant drilling contractor in the US Gulf of Mexico.” says Claus V. Hemmingsen, CEO of Maersk Drilling and member of the Executive Board of the A.P. Moller – Maersk Group.

Source and Photos: Maersk Drilling’s press release

Iran-Pakistan Gas Pipeline

Iran-Pakistan Gas Pipeline

Peace Pipeline Project

Nowadays, growing energy crisis is causing severe electricity shortages in Pakistan. To bridge this gap the “Peace Pipeline,” also known as Iran-Pakistan Gas Pipeline project has been planned since the 1990s and originally would have extended from Pakistan to its old competitor, India. Iran has the world’s second-largest gas reserves after Russia, roughly 15% of the world’s gas supply. According to this project, the pipeline will connect Iran’s South Fars gas field with Pakistan’s Southern Baluchistan and Sindh provinces.

Involvement of International Politics

US ask Pakistan & India to pull out of Iran Gas Pipeline Project to qualify for extensive assistance. The United States has tried to discourage India and Pakistan from any deal with Iran because of Tehran’s supposed ambitions to build nuclear weapons. Iran denies any such ambitions.

Saudi Arabia, in an effort to persuade Pakistan to abandon the Iran gas pipeline and electricity/oil import deals, was reported to have offered an “Alternative Package” to meet its growing energy needs. In addition, the Arab kingdom was also said to have offered a loan and oil facility to bail Pakistan out of its financial and energy crises.

Sanctions by the West, political chaos and construction delays have slowed its development as an exporter.

India under US Pressure

The project was first mooted in 1994. It was proposed to carry gas through Pakistan to India in a 1,724-mile pipeline. But India, under intense pressure from the United States, backed off in 2009, citing disputes over prices, transportation fees and long-running distrust of Pakistan.

Interest of China

China, ever hungry for energy to fuel its rapidly increasing economy, has indicated that it might sign on and run an extension of the pipeline from Pakistan. China is the main obstacle preventing the United States mustering the U.N. Security Council behind new sanctions on Iran. Sanctions would cut 10-12 % of China’s oil imports and endanger oil contracts worth hundreds of billions of dollars.

China Backed Off

Pakistani and Chinese officials discussed the laying of the gas pipeline from Gwadar to Western China in a meeting, but Chinese firm which offered financing of $500 million for Iran-Pakistan (IP) gas pipeline has pulled out of the project after Pakistan government expressed its unwillingness to extend the bid validity period.

Long Term Benefits

If this project was approved, as part of the economic corridor, Gwadar Port connected through road and rail links to China could help enhancing trade between the two countries. Oil and gas pipelines could feature in the economic corridor, providing much-needed boost to economic activities in insurgency-hit Balochistan.

Progression of Project

According to a senior government official, Pakistan and Iran will start negotiations on provision of funds for the pipeline if the Iranian government gives the nod. Iran has already committed $500 million in loan for laying the pipeline in Pakistan.

Iran has almost completed the pipeline work in its territory, but Pakistan has yet to start construction of 780 kilometers of the pipeline on its side, which is estimated to cost $1.5 billion. Under the deal, 750 million cubic feet of gas will be pumped to Pakistan daily from Iran by mid-2015.

References

  1. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/pakistan/Iran-Pakistan-gas-pipeline-could-be-extended-to-China/articleshow/22024504.cms
  2. http://www.thenews.com.pk/Todays-News-13-21263-Pakistan-Iran-agree-to-complete-gas-pipeline-in-15-months#sthash.2Rhqy2LL.dpuf
  3. http://www.upi.com/Business_News/Energy-Resources/2010/03/19/Pakistan-gas-pipeline-is-Irans-lifeline/UPI-27741269029633/#ixzz2MI6Ro8yG

Photo: Google.com/images

 

 

Fracking Water’s Dirty Little Secret – Recycling

11 October, 2013 News No comments
Fracking Water’s Dirty Little Secret – Recycling

With the commercial launch of Halliburton’s trademarked H20 Forward water recycling and reuse process, the difference in how produced water will be handled in 2013 versus 2009 could be more than just a change. As the process becomes more widely used and accepted (it has already been proven in more than 60 wells and 280 fractures), it could create a new approach to the way the oil and gas industry and the entire Williston Basin thinks about water, or as Halliburton believes, a paradigm shift of fluid technology.

The H20 Forward process can recycle produced water in the same reservoirs that hold the hydrocarbons unlocked during the hydraulic fracturing process, and the flowback water that is pumped into the well and then returned during extraction. This allows for unlimited reuse of the produced water in new well completions instead of disposal in deep injection wells.

“When you think about the industry and all the people that are involved, they’ve always said you need good quality water [for fracking] and now we are saying you don’t,” Walter Dale says.

The process will allow for the use of commingled water, and the site preparation for the first recycling facility is already underway east of Watford City, N.D. According to Dale, water managements costs related to hydraulic fracturing are roughly $51 billion annually. “Everybody,” Johnsrud said, at the demonstration event, “will be watching to see how it [the Halliburton-Nuverra process] happens.”

Read more…
Image from: i.huffpost.com, thebakken.com

Gas Hydrates – worth the wait!

Gas Hydrates – worth the wait!

Conventional sources are expensive, polluting, or drying up. This gives rise to a growing demand for carbon free emission energy. Methane, being the cleanest of all hydrocarbon fuels, has undoubtedly brought gas-hydrates into a bigger picture. They are the largest source for hydrocarbons on the Earth. Methane/Gas hydrates are cage like crystalline substances consisting majorly of methane and water, and are found in the outer continental margins and permafrost regions.

Melting one cubic meter block of a gas hydrate can yield as high as 164 cubic meter of gaseous methane. Worldwide reserves are estimated to be 400-500 million trillion cubic feet. Even, exploitation of 15% from this gigantic reserve can meet the global energy requirement for about two centuries (Makogon et al., 2007). The current challenge is to inventory this resource and find safe, economical ways to develop it. The latest studies suggest large methane reservoirs beneath Antarctic ice sheet. Japan has enormous offshore deposits and has invested $60 million on research to have production on line by 2015. With investments as high as $50million, India is also looking into converting its offshore deposits . Germany, France, and Australia are following their steps in what could be tomorrow’s game changer in the industry.

To date there has been no large-scale commercial methane production from gas hydrate deposits. All of the production has either been small scale or experimental. In early 2012, a joint project between the United States and Japan produced a steady flow of methane by injecting carbon dioxide into the methane hydrate accumulation. The carbon dioxide replaced the methane in the hydrate structure and liberated the methane to flow to the surface. This test was significant because it allowed the production of methane without the instabilities associated with a melting gas hydrate.

The future of gas hydrates doesn’t lie in the reserve potential only, rather in  the amount of research, technology advancements, and policy framework that could shape its dependency, which looks very green and promising.

GHPie
References:

geology.com/articles/methane-hydrates/

http://worldoceanreview.com/en/wor-1/ocean-chemistry/climate-change-and-methane-hydrates/2/

http://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id=8690

http://cafetinnova.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Vol-05-No-02-Editorial-Note.pdf

 

Photos: Huffington Post, eatingjellyfish.org

Wrap up of the last week in the EU Gas Market

9 October, 2013 News No comments
Wrap up of the last week in the EU Gas Market

The week started with news from the UK, Ukraine, Romania and Russia. Eastern Europe, Russia and the UK resulted in being the main players of the week, along with Italy and Germany.

  • In Russia, Rosneft kept on its growth trend, ivesting in LNG plant in a Russia Far East project with ExxonMobil. Later last week, the company also clinched an agreement with Sweden’s Lundin Petroleum.Gazprom proves to be still a pivotal player of Russian energy policies, addressing the issues of bilateral cooperation in the gas sector between Moscow and Kiev.

EU Competition Commissioner Joaquin Almunia said that EU regulators are prepared to initiate formal legal proceedings against Gazprom, over allegation that the company abused its dominant position in the gas market.

  • In UK last week cooled down the expectations for a British shale gas boom.
  • In Eastern Europe shale gas is peaking up and regional markets are on their way to a consolidation.
    Ukraine has been the rising star of the week. The country keeps swinging between Moscow and Brussels – a free trade agreement with the EU could come soon – but Kiev continues on it path to foster a national gas revolution.
  • Italy and Germany: Eni had a difficult start of the week, with gas flows from Libya into Italy halved on Monday from normal values. Protesters in North Africa affected the Greenstream pipeline to Sicily.Germany’s EWE aims to double the number of its natural gas consumers, taking advantage of the expanding retail sector in Turkey.

The coming week’s headlines could be dominated by France and Ukraine.

 

Find more: Week 40 Overview

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